Showing posts from May, 2023

Primary and Secondary Stress: A note

Discuss primary and secondary stress. In linguistics, stress refers to the emphasis placed on certain syllables within a word or phrase. It is an essential feature of spoken language. It contributes to the rhythm and intonation patterns of a language. Stress can be categorized into primary stress and secondary stress. Both of them play different roles in word pronunciation. Primary Stress: Primary stress is the most prominent emphasis placed on a syllable within a word. It is typically marked with a vertical line ( ́ ) above the stressed syllable. In English, primary stress is usually found on one of the syllables in a word. It plays a significant role in determining the word's pronunciation and meaning. For example, in the word "elephant," the primary stress falls on the second syllable: e-LE-phant. Primary stress is important for distinguishing between words that are spelled similarly but have different meanings. Consider the following examples: Record (noun

A Note on Morphemes

Write a note on morphemes. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language. It is a fundamental concept in linguistics. It plays a significant role in understanding the structure and meaning of words. Morphemes are used to form words. On the basis of their meaning and function they are analysed and categorised. There are two main types of morphemes: Free Morphemes and Bound Morphemes. (A) Free Morphemes: Free Morphemes are independent units. They can stand alone as words. They can carry independent meaning. For example, in the word 'bookshelf,' both 'book' and 'shelf' are Free Morphemes. They can function independently. Both of them have their own meaning. (B) Bound Morphemes: Bound Morphemes cannot stand alone as words. They must be attached to other morphemes. Bound Morphemes can be divided into two subcategories: prefixes and suffixes. A prefix is a morpheme that is added at the beginning of a word while a suffix is added at the end. For exam

A Note on Syllable

Write a  note on Syllable in detail. A syllable is a fundamental unit of pronunciation in phonetics and phonology. It refers to a single, uninterrupted sound or a unit of speech. It typically consists of a vowel (nucleus) and optionally one or more surrounding consonant sounds (onset and coda). Syllables play a significant role in determining the rhythm, structure, and pronunciation of words in various languages. Here are some key characteristics and components of a syllable: (A) Nucleus: The nucleus is the core part of a syllable. It is typically a vowel sound. It carries the main acoustic energy. It is usually pronounced with a more emphasis compared to the surrounding sounds. Example: ‘a’ in ‘mat’ ‘i’ in ‘fit’ ‘u’ in ‘cup’ (B) Onset: The onset refers to the consonant sound. It occurs before the nucleus in a syllable. It is the initial sound that begins the syllable. However, some syllables may not have an onset. In such a case the nucleus serves as the initial sound of th

Write a note on Determiners.

Write a note on Determiners. Determiners are a category of words in grammar. They are used to introduce and specify nouns. They play an important role in providing information about the number, quantity, ownership, definiteness, and proximity of the noun they modify. Determiners precede nouns and help to clarify or limit their meaning within a sentence. They are an essential part of English syntax. They contribute to the overall structure and meaning of a sentence. Some key types of determiners are as follows: (A) Articles: Articles are a type of determiner that indicate the definiteness or indefiniteness of a noun. English has two types of articles: ‘a’ and ‘an (indefinite articles) and ‘the’ (definite article). ‘A’ and ‘an’ are used before singular, countable nouns when they are mentioned for the first time, while ‘the’ is used before specific or known nouns. Example: I saw a dog in the park. (Indefinite article) An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (Indefinite article) The b

A Short note on I.A. Richards' Concept of Two Uses of Language

Write a short note on I. A. Richards' concept of two uses of language. I.A. Richards is a prominent British critic and rhetorician. In his popular book The Meaning of Meaning he has introduced the concept of the ‘two uses of language.’ In this pioneer work on semantics he argues that language serves two primary functions- the ‘instrumental’ use and the ‘symbolic’ use. Instrumental Use: The instrumental use of language refers to its practical and utilitarian purpose of conveying information or achieving specific goals. In this use, language acts as a tool for communication. It allows individuals to express their thoughts. It helps in conveying factual information. The instrumental use is predominantly concerned with the referential aspect of language. It aims to convey meaning accurately and unambiguously. It is instrumental in facilitating everyday interactions, conveying instructions and sharing knowledge. Symbolic Use: The symbolic use of language focuses on the aestheti

A Short Note on Saussure' concept of sign, signifier and signified.

A Short Note on Saussure' concept of sign, signifier and signified. Ferdinand de Saussure is a Swiss linguist. He is known for his significant work in the field of structural linguistics. His chief contribution is the concept of the sign, signifier, and signified. This concept forms the foundation of semiotics, the study of signs and their meaning. Saussure's ideas have had a profound impact on linguistics. According to Saussure, a sign is composed of two inseparable components. They are the signifier and the signified. The signifier refers to the physical form of the sign. It can be a sound, a written word, an image, a gesture, or any other sensory stimulus. It is the concrete representation of the sign. The signified is the conceptual or mental content associated with the sign. It represents the meaning or the idea conveyed by the signifier. The signified is not a concrete entity. It is an abstract concept that exists in our minds. It is subjective. It can vary between

Character Sketch of Santiago of The Old Man and the Sea

Character Sketch of Santiago of The Old Man and the Sea Santiago is the protagonist of Ernest Hemingway's novel The Old Man and the Sea . He is an elderly Cuban fisherman. Continuously he does not catch even a single fish for 84 days. Due to this failure he earns the reputation of being unlucky. In spite of this, Santiago displays remarkable strength and determination throughout the story. In The Old Man and the Sea Santiago is depicted as a simple and humble man. He has a deep love for the sea. He has a strong sense of purpose. He is driven by his passion for fishing. He is desirous to prove himself victor. His age and black spot of bad luck do not appear as barrier in his way. Santiago's determination is evident in his decision to go far out into the sea. The most prominent trait of Santiago is his endurance. He faces tremendous physical challenges during his battle with the Marlin. He bravely faces exhaustion, pain, and hunger. Despite the insurmountable odds Santi

Character Sketch of Hori of Godan

Character Sketch of Hori of Godan Hori is an immortal character of Munshi Premchand. He is the protagonist of the novel Godan. He is a complex and compelling character. He embodies the struggles and aspirations of the common man in rural India during the early 20th century. Through this character the novelist explores themes of social inequality, poverty, and the plight of the Indian peasantry. Hori is a hardworking and diligent small farmer. He has a deep desire to own a cow. He represents the aspirations of countless peasants who dream of escaping the cycle of poverty and improving their social standing. Hori's relentless pursuit of acquiring cow becomes a metaphor for his quest for dignity and self-worth. Hori is married to Dhania. He has two daughters, Sona and Rupa. He has a son named Gobar. Hori is an up-righteous man. He struggles throughout his life to preserve his up-righteousness. He has two younger brothers. He considers his obligation as the eldest brother to h

A character sketch of Nora

Give a character sketch of Nora Nora Helmer is a character in Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House. She is the protagonist of the play. She is a multifaceted character. Nora's character is a poignant representation of the struggle for personal identity, societal expectations and the role of women in a patriarchal society. At the beginning of the play, Nora is depicted as a happy and carefree wife and mother. She is enthusiastic and playful. She relishes in the small joys of life. She indulges in eating macaroons secretly. Nora possesses a certain level of wit and intelligence. Her upbringing and societal constraints have led her to prioritize her role as a wife and mother above all else. Physically, Nora is described as a beautiful woman. She is young and charming. She has often been depicted as delicate lady. This depiction aligns with the societal expectations of femininity during that time. Her physical appearance reflects the image of a doll-like figure. However,

Sailing to Byzantium by Yeats: A Critical Appreciation

Write a critical appreciation of Yeats' Sailing to Byzantium. ‘Sailing to Byzantium’ is a remarkable poem by W.B. Yeats. It was first published in the collection The Tower in 1928. It deals with the themes of art, aging, and the quest for immortality. Through its rich imagery, profound symbolism and skillful craftsmanship, the poem offers a thought-provoking exploration of the human condition and the desire for transcendence. ‘Sailing to Byzantium’ explores the dichotomies between age and youth as well as sensuality and spirituality. The speaker of this poem is ‘an aged man.’ He realizes that youth and the sensual life are no longer an option for him. Thus he commences on a spiritual journey to the ideal world of Byzantium. The first stanza of the poem examines the natural or sensual world. Here the speaker feels alien. He feels that the new generation is caught in the ‘sensual music’. It overlooks the immortal aspects of art and intellect. The second stanza explores t

Tennyson as a Representative Poet of Victorian Period.

Discuss Tennyson as a representative poet of Victorian period. Lord Tennyson is widely regarded as the representative poet of the Victorian period. His poetry embodies the ideals, themes and sensibilities of his era. His compositions reflect the social, cultural, and intellectual concerns of Victorian society. The key characteristic of his poetry is his exploration of the human condition and the complex emotions of individuals. Tennyson's poetry delves deep into the psychological and emotional landscapes of his era. He discusses themes of loss, mortality and faith in ‘Ulysses’ and ‘In Memoriam’. These compositions deal also with the search for meaning in a rapidly changing world. The Victorian era was facing many challenges. It was suffering from uncertainties. This era was deeply concerned with questions of morality, duty, and social progress. Tennyson addressed all these themes in his works. In ‘The Lady of Shalott’ Tennyson talks about the consequences of breaking societal

Tennyson: A great Poet

Tennyson: A great Poet Lord Tennyson is undoubtedly the greatest poet of the Victorian era. His poetry effectively expresses the spirit of the age. He was not only a poet but the voice of his age. He wedded art to life. He tried to evolve a compromise between science and religion. His ‘In Memoriam’ offered him a great acclaim. Alfred, Lord Tennyson was born on August 06, 1809, at Somersby Rectory, Lincolnshire. He was educated at Louth in his childhood. In 1828 he went up to Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1829 he won the Chancellor’s English medal for a poem named 'Timbuctoo.' In Trinity College he met Arthur Hallam who became his most intimate friend. In 1831 he left Cambridge. And after that the excessive devotion to tobacco he started suffering from ill health. In the meantime the news of the sudden death of Arthur Hallam came to him in September 1833. It was a great shock to Tennyson. It was the greatest personal tragedy in Tennyson’s life. Then to express his grie

Wordsworth as a Poet of Nature

Discuss William Wordsworth as a poet of nature. William Wordsworth is the most prominent figure of the Romantic Movement in English literature. He is widely celebrated as a poet of nature. Several of his poems project the influence of Nature on him. These poems also show the influence of Nature on man. Wordsworth has written about simple people in simple language. His world of poetry deals with mystery, interest in the past, love of Nature, Interest in humanity, love for simplicity, freedom of imagination etc. Wordsworth's affinity for nature can be traced back to his childhood experiences in the Lake District of England. This is the place where the poet develops a lifelong love for the natural environment. His poetry deals with a deep appreciation for the beauty and power of the natural world. It also reflects an understanding of spiritual and moral dimensions of this world. Wordsworth's most celebrated poem, 'Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey,' is

Gray: A Great Transitional Poet

Gray: A Great Transitional Poet Thomas Gray is the greatest poet between Milton and Wordsworth. He is called the poetical classic of the 18th century. It is he who has offered some immortal poems to the literature of his nation. 'An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard' is the best example of it. Gray is a great and matchless elegiac poet in the annals of English poetry. He indulged himself in the luxury of tears. Melancholy is the distinguishing feature of his poems. His poetry is full of sorrow, suffering, disease and death. As a true mourner Gray mourns the tragic fate of mankind. He always deals with the mortality and meaninglessness of human life. His 'ELEGY...' is a sincere song of mourning. Thus Gray is par excellence a poet of death and mourning. Thomas Gray is a transitional poet. He showed his merit between the Neo-Classical and Romantic Age. Thus his position as a classic and as a precursor of Romanticism is established. It is said that he began his

Thomas Gray as a Transitional Poet

Discuss Thomas Gray as a transitional poet Thomas Gray is a unique poet of the 18th-century. He is often regarded as a transitional poet in the history of English poetry. His works exhibit characteristics of both the neoclassical and romantic periods. These characteristics have made him an important transitional poet. In his works we find the rationality and order of the neoclassical era and the emotional and imaginative nature of the romantic era. During Gray's lifetime (1716-1771), Neoclassicism was the dominant literary movement. This movement emphasized reason, order, and formal structures. The neoclassical poets adhered to strict rules of decorum. They often focused on moral themes, classical allusions, and didacticism. Gray, however, introduced a more personal and introspective approach to poetry. The emergence of romanticism was the result of this new approach. One of Gray's most famous poems, ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard,’ is the best example of his tran