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Tree - Tina Morris

They did not tell us What it would be like Without trees. Nobody imagined That the whispering of leaves Would grow silent Or the vibrant jade of spring Pale to grey death.   And now we pile Rubbish on rubbish In the dusty landscape Struggling to create A tree.   But though the shape is right And the nailed branches Lean upon the wind And plastic leaves Lend colour to the twigs.   We wait in vain For the slow unfurling of buds. And no amount of loving Can stir our weary tree To singing.

The Solitary Reaper - William Wordsworth

Behold her, single in the field, Yon solitary Highland Lass! Reaping and singing by herself; Stop here, or gently pass! Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain; O listen! for the Vale profound Is overflowing with the sound. No Nightingale did ever chaunt More welcome notes to weary bands Of travellers in some shady haunt, Among Arabian sands: A voice so thrilling ne'er was heard In spring-time from the Cuckoo-bird, Breaking the silence of the seas Among the farthest Hebrides. Will no one tell me what she sings?— Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow For old, unhappy, far-off things, And battles long ago: Or is it some more humble lay, Familiar matter of to-day? Some natural sorrow, loss, or pain, That has been, and may be again?   Whate'er the theme, the Maiden sang As if her song could have no ending; I saw her singing at her work, And o'er the sickle bending;— I listened, motionless

The Portrait of a Lady - Khushwant Singh

  MY grandmother, like everybody’s grandmother, was an old woman. She had been old and wrinkled for the twenty years that I had known her. People said that she had once been young and pretty and had even had a husband, but that was hard to believe. My grandfather’s portrait hung above the mantelpiece in the drawing room. He wore a big turban and loose-fitting clothes. His long, white beard covered the best part of his chest and he looked at least a hundred years old.   He did not look the sort of person who would have a wife or children. He looked as if he could only have lots and lots of grandchildren. As for my grandmother being young and pretty, the thought was almost revolting. She often told us of the games she used to play as a child. That seemed quite absurd and undignified on her part and we treated it like the fables of the Prophets she used to tell us. She had always been short and fat and slightly bent. Her face was a criss-cross of wrinkles running from everywhere

Tryst with Destiny - J.L. Nehru

Long years ago, we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest and trackless centuries which are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures. Through good and ill fortune alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a st

Twelfth Night: A Brief Story

William Shakespeare has composed several fantastic comedies. Twelfth Night is one of them. It is a beautiful romantic comedy of five acts. Its story is very interesting. The Scene I of Act 1 opens in the Duke’s palace in Illyria. The name of the Duke is Orsino. He has deep love for a countess named Lady Olivia. That’s why he sends proposal of marriage to her. But Olivia rejects his offer of marriage because she is sorry and she is in mourning for her dead brother. The Scene II of this Act takes the readers to sea-coast of Illyria. It has been shown that on the sea-coast a captain and some sailors are landing. With them there is a beautiful unmarried young lady named Viola who plays the pivotal role in this play. All these persons are the victims of a shipwreck. Viola’s twin brother Sebastian was also voyaging by that ill fated ship. Sebastian was seen by the captain struggling against the strong waves after the shipwreck. But no one knows whether he is alive or dead. The capt

THE RAPE OF THE LOCK: A BRIEF STUDY

Alexander Pope is one of the greatest poets of England. The Rape of the Lock is his masterpiece. It is one of the best compositions of English language. It is popular for its theme and style. In short, this composition is a classic of drawing room society. Pope was a great satirist. He used poetry as a great instrument of moral improvement. The Rape of the Lock is completely satirical. As a satirist Pope directed his satire against all classes of people. He boldly satirized corruption in high places. He never spared those who indulged in corruption, vices and evils.  Pope used mock epic style to make his satire powerful. The Rape of the Lock is its best example. As we know that the theme of this poem is the cutting of a lock of a lady’s hair. It is a trivial theme, no doubt. There is nothing heroic in it. But Pope has given this trivial theme the dignity and exaltation and epic treatment. To present this trivial theme Pope has employed nearly all the important elements of

SUNDARKAND: A STUDY

Valmiki, one of the greatest literary artists, is the author of the Ramayan . His Ramayan is considered to be the greatest Indian epic. It deals with Lord Ram’s journey of life. It consists of many sections. The fifth section of this epic is popular as Sundar Kand . This section highlights Hanuman’s devotion for Lord Ram.   It commences with the departure of Hanuman in search of Sita and it ends with Ram’s preparation to cross the Ocean for Lanka to liberate Sita. This episode is called sundar because it is auspicious and it promotes good human values. It contains poetic description of several beautiful objects, places and people. Whether the poet describes Ram or Ravan he goes into poetic rapture. This part contains all the elements of classical epic viz. grand character, grand action, grand theme, grand style, invocation and supernatural machinery. Commenting upon Sundar Kand Tilak says, ‘Sundare sundari Lanka, sundare sundari katha, sundare sundari Sita, sundare kim na sunda

W. H. AUDEN: A POET

  W. H Auden is known as an Oxford poet. He was a versatile writer. He played a very important role as the leader of Oxford poets. Thus Auden is popular as the most representative poet of the thirties. He was influenced by Eliot, Hopkins, Kipling, Freud and Marx. Auden’s literary career is divided into two phases. In the first phase he was influenced by both Marx and Freud. Their theories played vital role in the career of this poet. Thus his early poetry appears as a strange fusion of Freudian and Marxist views. His interest in psychological state became very deep. He supported the left wing political ideologies. The main theme of his early poetry is social criticism and protest. This early poetry expresses the poet’s reaction to the political, social and economic issues of 1930s. Freudian phases and Marxian metaphors found a place in Auden’s writings. The contemporary political tensions and social and economic unrest are the important subjects of his early poetry. He treats

AN ESSAY ON CRITICISM: A POEM BY POPE

Alexander Pope is a very great poet of the 18 th century. He belongs to the Neo-Classical School of poetry. His An Essay on Criticism is a very popular composition. It is a poem in the heroic couplet. It is considered a brilliant piece of craftsmanship. Its felicities of expression delight the intellect. Dryden’s concept of poetry is admirably exemplified this poem. This poem displays the overwhelming influence of the ancients on it. An Essay on Criticism is a didactic poem. It deals with the theory of poetry. Here the rules of composition are stated in a clever fashion. The poem expresses that visionary ideas and personal taste are desirable in poetry. A scholarly mind and a disciplined response to poetic experience are also necessary. In short, the whole poem revolves round the word ‘wit’. In the beginning part of the poem, the poet talks about the softness and flow in poetry. According to him true art comes after a lot of practice. It does not come by chance. As good d

SYLVIA PLATH: A POET

Sylvia Plath is a very popular poet of the 20 th century. She is called a confessional poet. Her poetry is full of autobiographical notes. It has a variety of themes. We find her personal anxiety through her poetry. Born at Boston in America, Sylvia Plath lost her father in the age of eight. Her father’s death sowed the seeds of anxiety in her life. It continued almost endlessly throughout her life. Her conjugal life was very pitiable. Her divorce produced her disregard for men and society. She came in direct conflict with society and its practices. She lost her faith in humanity and society. Plath’s poetry has various themes. It may be considered as an expression of schizophrenic mind. Desperation, schizophrenia and total negation of life were her basic thematic concerns. She was a feminist who was averse to male dominance. She is a literary symbol of the feminist movement. She condemns the submissive and marginal roe of a woman. She always glorifies the motherhood. The Mo

Paradise Lost as an Epic

  John Milton is one of the greatest poets of England. His Paradise Lost is one of the greatest epics in English language. Here the poet has maintained the classical tradition of epic writing. In fact, an epic is a long narrative poem that contains great action, great hero and great style. In Milton’s Paradise Lost one can find all these three things. According to Aristotle there are some important characteristics of an epic. Among them fable, theme, characters, machinery, episodes, integrity, sentiment and grand style are significant. Addison has also described three qualifications of an epic. These are – the fable, the entirety of action and the greatness of action. When we analyze and evaluate the Paradise Lost, we find all these characteristics in it. The fable is one of the most important elements of an epic. It is considered to be the backbone of an epic. The most important duty of an epic poet is to select a moral to illustrate and establish. In the Paradise Lost Milto

Donne as a Love Poet

 John Donne is the centre of the metaphysical school of poetry. This school is known for its style. This style is marked by the use of conceits, wit, learning, elaboration and passionate thinking. John Donne is the founder of this school. Thus his poetry has all these qualities. His poetry falls into three divisions. Amorous poetry is one of them. John Donne is known as a great love poet. His love poems show his intense personal moods as a lover and analyst of his own experience. It is said that Donne was a frequent visitor of ladies. He developed love affairs and friendship with a number of women. He fell in love with Anne More and eloped with her and married. He was imprisoned for his love. His experience of love made him a great love poet. Thus his love poems are based not on conventions but on his own experience. John Donne has composed a number of love songs. They are intense and subtle analysis of lover's moods. They at times mingle with sensuality and finest wit like tha

Morning Song By Sylvia Plath

 Sylvia Plath is one of the most renowned American poets of the 20th century. She has written many memorable poems. They deal with the experiments and tensions of domestic life and motherhood. Morning Song' is one of them. This fine poem is in the dramatic monologue. 'Morning Song' reveals the feelings of a mother for her baby. It echoes with a mother's love for her new born baby. In short, this poem expresses motherly fondness and pride. It expresses mixed feelings of compassion, apathy and anxiety. 'Morning Song' deals with motherhood. It starts with the arrival of a new baby. This new born baby is the result of love between husband and wife. The baby is too tiny to respond. But the mother makes conversation in a loving tone with it. Her manner is like that of a detached observer but not indifferent. The baby made its entry into this world with a bald cry. The baby's cry attracts the attention of the parents and other people. The baby is like a new stat