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THE SUNDARA KANDA: AN INTRODUCTION

Introduction: In Sanskrit literature Maharshi Valmiki is celebrated as the poet harbinger. His reputation as the father of Indian poetry seems to have been legendary. It is he who composed The Ramayana, an ancient Sanskrit epic. It forms an important part of the Hindu canon (Smriti). It deals with divine Lord Ram and his journey of life. It tells the story of Ram, an incarnation of the Hindu preserver-god Vishnu. Thematically, the epic explores the tenets of human existence and the concept of dharma. It is one of the two great epics of India, the other being the Mahabharata. It portrays ideal characters like the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.

Valmiki’s Ramayana is one of the world's most remarkable classics and excels all in its moral appeal. It is full of lessons for all and deserves to be read with interest and profit by all lovers of healthy literature. It is noted for its poetic excellence. It stands equal in rank to the Vedas. It contain…

VALMIKI’S RAMAYANA: AN INTRODUCTION

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In Sanskrit literature Maharshi Valmiki is celebrated as the poet harbinger. The Uttara Kanda chapter of the Ramayana tells the tale of the poet’s early life, as an unnamed highway robber. One day the robber attempted to rob Narada for the benefit of his family. Narada said to him, ‘Will his family share the sin he is incurring due to the robbery’. The robber replied in the affirmative. Narada suggested him to confirm this with his family. None agreed to bear the burden of his sin. Finally he understood the truth of life and asked for Narada's forgiveness. Narada taught him to worship Lord God. The robber meditated for many years. The ant-hills came to grow around his body. At last, a divine voice declared his penance successful. That voice bestowed him with the name Valmiki, one born out of ant-hills.
Valmiki's reputation as the father of Indian poetry seems to have been legendary. In the Buddhacarita Ashvagosha is of the view that the voice of Valmiki uttered poetry which t…

SYLLABUS OF M.A. ENGLISH: SEM IV

M.A. ENGLISH: SEM. IV
********************
(Department of Higher Education, Govt. of M.P.)
Class: M.A. Final
Sub: English Literature
Sem: FOURTH
***************
PAPER- I (Critical Theory)
UNIT-I
Anand Vardhan: Dhwani Theory
Ferdinand: Saussure: The Nature of Linguistic Sign
UNIT-II: 
I.A. Richards: Two Uses of Language
J.C. Ransom: Concept of Structure and Texture of Poetry
UNIT- III
F.R. Leavis: Literary Criticism and Philosophy
J. Derrida: Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciences
UNIT- IV 
Edward Said: Crisis ( The Scope of Orientalism)
Basic Trends in Feminist Criticism
UNIT-V 
Practical Criticism: It will contain two passages; One in verse and the other in prose for practical criticism following the technique as illustrated in I.A. Richards' book 'Practical Criticism' and David Daiches' 'Critical Approaches'.


PAPER- II (English Language)
UNIT-I
Morphology:
Morpheme, Allomorph, Word Formation
UNIT-II: 
Linguistic Analysis:
I.C. Analysis and Ambigu…

SYLLABUS OF M.A. ENGLISH- SEM. II

M.A. ENGLISH: SEM. II
********************
(Department of Higher Education, Govt. of M.P.)
Class: M.A. Previous
Sub: English Literature
SEM: SECOND 
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PAPER- I (POETRY)
UNIT-I (Pre Romantic Poetry)
Thomas Gray: The Bard, The Progress of Poesy
William Blake: On Another Sorrow, From 'Auguries of Innocence', The Poison Tree
UNIT-II: (Romantic Poetry)
W. Wordsworth: Tintern Abbey, Ode on the Intimations of Immortality.
P.B. Shelley: Adonais
John Keats: Ode on a Grecian Urn, Ode to Autumn
UNIT- III (Victorian Poetry)
Alfred Tennyson: Ulysses, The Lotus Eaters
Matthew Arnold: Thyrsis, The Scholar Gipsy
UNIT- IV (Symbolist Poetry)
T.S. Eliot: The Waste Land
W. B. Yeats: The Second Coming, Byzantium, Sailing to Byzantium
UNIT-V (Modern Poetry)
W.H. Auden: Strange Meeting, The Shield of Achilles
Dylan Thomas: Fern Hill, A Refusal to Mourn the Death of a Child

PAPER- II (DRAMA)
UNIT-I
Annotations
UNIT-II: (Restoration Drama)
John Dryden: All For Love
Congreve: The Way of the World
UN…

SYLLABUS OF M.A. ENGLISH: SEM- III

M.A. ENGLISH: SEM. III
********************
(Department of Higher Education, Govt. of M.P.)
Class: M.A. Final
Sub: English Literature
Sem: THIRD
***************
PAPER- I (Critical Theory)
UNIT-I
Natyashastra- Rasa Theory
Aristote: Poetics (Butcher's Translation
UNIT-II: 
Longinus: On the Sublime
Philip Sidney: Apology for Poetry
UNIT- III
John Dryden: An Essay on Dramatic Poesy
Dr. Johnson: Preface to Shakespeare
UNIT- IV 
Wordsworth: Preface to the Lyrical Ballads
Coleridge: Biographia Literaria (Ch. XIII & XIV)
UNIT-V 
Matthew Arnold: Essays in Criticism (Second Series)
T.S. Eliot: Tradition and Individual Talent


PAPER- II (English Language)
UNIT-I
Definition, Functions, Characteristics, Development of English Language.
UNIT-II: 
Language Varieties: Register, Style and Dialect Approaches to the Study of Language: Synchronic and Diachronic
UNIT- III 
Definition of Phonetics and Phonology, Difference between Phonetics and Phonology, Organs of Speech
UNIT- IV 
Phonemes, Allophones, Phonet…