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English Literature

USES OF THE ARTICLE: PART A

1. A & An Indefinite articles कहलाते हैं.
2. A & An का अर्थ होता है - एक .
3. A & An  का प्रयोग Singular Countable Noun (गिनी जा सकने योग्य एकवचन संज्ञा) के पूर्व pronunciation (उच्चारण) के आधार पर किया जाता है.
4. जिस Singular Countable Noun के उच्चारण की आरंभिक ध्वनि स्वर ध्वनि (Vowel Sound) हो उस Noun के पूर्व an का प्रयोग किया जाता है .
5. जिस Singular Countable Noun के उच्चारण की आरंभिक ध्वनि व्यंजन ध्वनि (Consonant Sound) हो उस Noun के पूर्व a का प्रयोग किया जाता है.

For Example:

1. I have a cow.
Note: ('cow' Singular countable Noun  है. इसका उच्चारण है - काऊ. आरंभिक ध्वनि 'क' व्यंजन ध्वनि (Consonant Sound) है. अतः यहाँ 'a' का प्रयोग उचित है.)

2. He is taking an orange.
Note: ('orange' Singular countable Noun  है. इसका उच्चारण है - ऑरेंज . आरंभिक ध्वनि 'अ ' स्वर ध्वनि (Vowel Sound) है. अतः यहाँ 'an' का प्रयोग उचित है.)


Important Examples:


(A) उच्चारण कीआरंभिक ध्वनि अगर हिंदी का स्वर हो तो 'an' एवं व्यंजन हो तो  'a…

MIRACLE MERCHANT BY MUNRO

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H. H. Munro has always been better known as 'Saki.' He is recognized as a reputed short story writer. In this context he is compared with O Henry and Maupassant. He is a well-known British humorist and satirist. As a creative writer he discovered his genius in his short stories. The Miracle Merchant is a very successful dramatization of his popular short story named The Hen.
The present one act play has a very suitable title. Here one of the characters of the play devises the miracle. He is Louis Courset. He prepares a plot to compel Jane to leave Mrs. Beau whistle's house. Thus the title suits to the major theme of the play.
The Miracle Merchant is full of irony and humour. Here the playwright has presented three major characters. They are Mrs. Beau whistle, Louis Courset and Jane Martlet. Mrs. Beau whistle is an elderly lady. She leads a luxurious life. She is unwilling to pamper her nephew, Louis. He is a witty young man. He always asks her for money. But she is not ready…

THE LOST CHILD: AN EXCELLENT STORY BY ANAND

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The winner of Sahitya Academy award, Mulk Raj Anand, is one of the greatest Indo Anglican writers. He received international recognition and fame. He became a legend in his lifetime. As a storywriter his contribution is noteworthy. The Lost Child is the first short story of this great author.
Anand has his own conception of the short story form. His stories cover a wide range of subjects, moods and tones. He shifts the tone according to the demand of the theme. He wrote a highly imaginative story like The Lost Child. It throws light on the psychological process of the mind of the child.
The Lost Child deals with an interesting story. It tells us that the young and nameless hero is on the visit of a village fair with his parents. On the way and in the fair he is attracted by a number of things. He wants to buy all sorts of things when he is with his parents. By chance he gets lost. Now the boy begins to cry for his parents. He is picked up by a kind old man. He offers many things to the …

WORDSWORTH'S PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE IN TINTERN ABBEY

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William Wordsworth is one of the world's most loving, penetrative and thoughtful poets of Nature. He is high priest and greatest worshipper of Nature. His entire poetic work expresses his attitude towards Nature. His Nature poetry is singular and unique in its spiritual appeal. It casts an elevating influence upon the reader's mind.
William Wordsworth is known for his philosophy of Nature. This philosophy has passed through four stages. In 'Tintern Abbey' one can easily trace all these four stages. Here the poet has presented the development of his love of Nature. In short, here Wordsworth gives an outline of his philosophy of Nature.
At the first stage the poet is a child of five to ten years. He gets delight from walking, bathing, basking and leaping in the lap of Nature. His early intercourse with Natural objects developed in him a calmness and tranquillity of soul. During this boyish stage Nature is:
But secondary to my own pursuits And animal activities, and all Their …

ABHIGYAN SHAKUNTALAM: A BRIEF STUDY

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Introduction:Abhigyan Shakuntalam is an excellent drama by Mahakavi Kalidas. It has acclaimed international acclaim. It consists of seven acts that deal with well known love story of King Dushyant and the maiden Shakuntala.This love story has been presented artistically. It is the pictorial presentation of human feelings. Its every word is the music as created by the Veena.
Title: This marvelous play has been named after its heroine. Here Shakuntala has played a significant role. Her lover King Dushyant is the hero of this play. If Shakuntala is a beautiful picture of womanhood, Dushyant is the sublime hero. The heroine of the play is a youthful maiden between fifteen and eighteen. The hero of the play appears to be young between thirty and thirty five. Shakuntala had heavenly beauty. It was inherited from her mother, Menaka. Dushyant was also youthful, handsome, and majestic and of sweet address. Being a paragon of beauty, Shakuntala fascinated the heart of king Dushyant.
Shakuntala an…

SAROJINI NAIDU AS A POET

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Sarojini Naidu is one of the greatest Indo-Anglian poets. She is appreciated as a great lyricist. Her lyrics are melodious. These lyrics have unsurpassable sweetness and beauty. Due to this Sarojini Naidu got recognition as the 'Bul Bule Hind'. Her Poems have English words, but an Indian soul. Her Poetic sensibility found its best expression in the full flush of womanhood.
The themes of Naidu's poems are usually Indian. Her poems on nature occupy the first place in her poetry. Love, life, death,religion, patriotism and women's freedom occupy prominent place in her poems. The introduction of Indian themes provides a new vitality to her poetry. Her poems are exceptionally admirable to explore the deep philosophy of spiritualism. From the thematic point of view, her poems may be divided into following categories:
1. Nature Poems
2. Love Poems
3. Patriotic Poems
4. Poems of Life and Death
5. Poems of the Indian Scene


Sarojini Naidu's contribution to the field of Indo-…

SAROJINI NAIDU: AN INTRODUCTION

Sarojini Naidu was born in an illustrious Bengali Brahmin family in Hyderabad on 13th of February 1879. Her family originally belonged to Brahmangaon, a village in East Bengal. It is now in Bangladesh. Sarojini received her early education in Hyderabad. At the age of twelve, she passed matriculation from Madras University. At the age of thirteen, she composed a long narrative poem Lady of the Lake. In the age of sixteen, she went to England for further studies in 1895. First of all she studied in King’s College of London and after that she went to Griton College, Cambridge.
In England Sarojini attracted the attention of Sir, Edmund Gosse and Arthur Symons. They were renowned poets, critics and biographers. Under the guidance of these two great authors, Sarojini embarked upon her career as a poet.
Sarojini suffered a nervous breakdown in England in 1898. Due to this she returned back India without any formal degree. She was married to Dr. Govinda Rajalu Naidu. After her marriage she sett…

NEHRU AS A PROSE WRITER

Before Jawahar Lal Nehru, English prose was not a powerful genre of Indo-Anglican literature. There was hardly any standard prose in existence. It was Nehru who enhanced the popularity of English prose by writing some popular books. His writings are marked with a unique style. It is lucid, spontaneous and suggestive. It has poetic richness.

 Nehru was a great journalist. He was always in favour of the freedom of press. He always stood in favour of a free and fearless press. He condemned yellow journalism. Though Nehru worked as a journalist for a long time, his prose became very sublime and penetrating. Even his extempore remarks are worthy of attention . At the same time Nehru was a great orator. He always spoke in a cultured tone. In this context he is compared with Churchill.

 Nehru was a great letter writer too. One can find much freshness and charm in his letters. In these letters Nehru used the conversational style. Here we do not come across a pedant but a great conversational…