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Showing posts from May, 2024

Thoreau's Views on Government

Thoreau's Views on Government Henry David Thoreau is a multifaceted American essayist and philosopher. He has left his indelible mark on literature, philosophy activism and environmentalism. He is a central figure in the American literary movement of Transcendentalism. This literary movement emphasized intuition, individualism, and a deep connection with nature. Thoreau's writing reflected all these themes. It has often attempted to explore the natural world and its impact on the human soul. This great philosopher has expressed his influential views on government in his Civil Disobedience which was published in 1849. This essay argues for the right to disobey laws that one considers unjust. This concept later inspired leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. In his Civil Disobedience Thoreau argued that people should prioritize their own conscience and moral judgment over the dictates of the government. It is Thoreau’s belief that the government often acts against the best int

Derrida and his Concept of Deconstruction: A short Note

Derrida and his Concept of Deconstruction: A short Note Introduction: Jacques Derrida is a major modern French philosopher. He is popular for developing the concept of deconstruction. This concept offers a method of analyzing texts. This famous concept criticizes the traditional Western philosophical ideas, like the idea that speech is superior to writing. This concept of Derrida is complex and multifaceted. It is often misunderstood or misrepresented. But this concept is very influential in the field of literature, law, history and political theory. Deconstruction: Deconstruction is a method of analyzing texts. The aim of this method is to challenge fixed meanings and hierarchies in texts and ideas. It exposes the inherent instability and contradictions within language itself. By deconstructing binary oppositions (like good/evil, speech/writing) Derrida reveals their interdependence. Deconstruction doesn't seek one 'true' meaning but rather a more nuanced understand

Dhvani theory by Anandavardhana: A note

Dhvani theory by Anandavardhana: A note The Dhvani theory is a milestone in the history of Indian literary criticism. It is Anandavardhana who outlined this theory in his most famous work Dhvanyaloka. Anandavardhana is a prominent figure in Indian literary criticism and a renowned Kashmiri scholar of the 8th or 9th century. He proposed the concept of ‘dhvani’ or ‘aesthetic suggestion’ as the soul of poetry in his Dhvanyaloka . This concept sparked a long-lasting debate in Indian aesthetics. It heavily influenced literary criticism for centuries. Dhvani theory emphasizes the emotional resonance created by a poem. According to this concept, in a poem the deeper meaning is suggested rather than directly stated. Dhvani refers to the suggestive or implied meaning in a poem. According to this concept the suggested meaning is often evoked through figures of speech. This meaning is more powerful than the literal meaning of the words. This concept is recognized for elevating the role of

Running for Governor by Mark Twain: A Critical Commentary

Running for Governor by Mark Twain: A Critical Commentary Mark Twain's ‘Running for Governor’ is a beautiful short work. It is full of satire and social commentary. It offers a sharp critique of American political culture of the late 19th century. In this work Twain recounts his nomination with mock seriousness. Here he has highlighted the absurdity of a political system that prioritizes popularity over qualifications. He tries to expose the hypocrisy and self-interest of political campaigns. In this composition Twain exposes the hollowness of non-committal political speeches. He further mocks the blind loyalty of party supporters who cheer for meaninglessness. This work of art is a sharp attack on political corruption. Here Twain criticizes the influence of self interest on political decisions. His portrayal of the shrewd politicians is appreciable. ‘Running for Governor’ throws light on contemporary social and political issues. The description of rampant social inequality a

Mark Twain: An Introduction

Mark Twain: An Introduction Introduction: Mark Twain, the pen name of Samuel Clemens, is a very popular figure of American literature. He was born in Florida, Missouri (US) on November 1835. He was a great humourist, journalist, lecturer and novelist. He got international fame for The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885). These novels are loved for their timeless tales of boyhood adventures. He also wrote insightful travelogues like The Innocents Abroad (1869), Roughing It (1872), and Life on the Mississippi (1883). In his compositions he captured the spirit of his time with humor and sharp wit. Mark Twain, a prolific writer, produced a wide range of works, including novels, short stories, essays, and travelogues. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer describes the adventures of a mischievous young boy named Tom Sawyer in the fictional town of St. Petersburg, Missouri. The novel is known for its humor, satire, and nostalgic portrayal of childhood.

Running For Governor (Text) by Mark Twain

Running For Governor by Mark Twain A few months ago I was nominated for Governor of the great state of New York, to run against Mr. John T. Smith and Mr. Blank J. Blank on an independent ticket. I somehow felt that I had one prominent advantage over these gentlemen, and that was--good character. It was easy to see by the newspapers that if ever they had known what it was to bear a good name, that time had gone by. It was plain that in these latter years they had become familiar with all manner of shameful crimes. But at the very moment that I was exalting my advantage and joying in it in secret, there was a muddy undercurrent of discomfort "riling" the deeps of my happiness, and that was--the having to hear my name bandied about in familiar connection with those of such people. I grew more and more disturbed. Finally I wrote my grandmother about it. Her answer came quick and sharp. She said: You have never done one single thing in all your life to be ashamed of--not one

My Financial Career by Stephen Leacock: A Summary

My Financial Career: A Summary Stephen Leacock's ‘My Financial Career’ is a funny and humorous account of a man's hilarious attempt to open an account for the first time in his life. It depicts narrator’s nervousness and fear in a bank. Everything related to bank makes him vexed. Once the narrator gets his salary increased to fifty dollars. He thinks to deposit that amount in a bank. He thinks that only a bank is a safe place to put his savings. Having fear, he enters the bank and commits the first mistake. He approaches the wrong counter. He asks the accountant about the manager and expresses his desire to meet the manager alone. The bank staffs are under the impression that he may be a detective or an important client. The accountant takes him to the manager. He requests the manager that he wants to talk to him in solitude. The manager gets anxious and takes him into a separate room. He thinks that he might belong to some detective agency but the narrator informs him th

Stephen Leacock

Stephen Leacock: An Introduction Stephen Leacock was born in England on 30 December in 1869. He immigrated to Canada with his family at a young age. Later on he became a beloved Canadian humorist and writer. He was a great scholar. He worked as a teacher and political scientist at McGill University. But it is his writing that made him a popular figure in the world. He is known as a leading humorist of English language between 1915 and 1925. His humor is lighthearted and observational. It often pokes fun of everyday absurdities of life. Stephen Leacock received many awards for his writing. The Lorne Pierce Medal is one of them. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. It was a prestigious recognition of his literary contributions. Leacock’s famous work ‘Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town’ captured the charm and eccentricities of a small-town. ‘My Financial Career’ is another very funny short story. It depicts a man's hilarious attempt to open an account for the first time

My Financial Career(Text) by Stephen Leacock

My Financial Career: Stephen Leacock When I go into a bank I get rattled. The clerks rattle me; the wickets rattle me; the sight of the money rattles me; everything rattles me. The moment I cross the threshold of a bank and attempt to transact business there, I become an irresponsible idiot. I knew this beforehand, but my salary had been raised to fifty dollars a month and I felt that the bank was the only place for it. So I shambled in and looked timidly round at the clerks. I had an idea that a person about to open an account must needs consult the manager. I went up to a wicket marked "Accountant." The accountant was a tall, cool devil. The very sight of him rattled me. My voice was sepulchral. "Can I see the manager?" I said, and added solemnly, "alone." I don't know why I said "alone." "Certainly," said the accountant, and fetched him. The manager was a grave, calm man. I held my fifty-six dollars clutched in a crumpled b

William Wordsworth: A Great Poet

William Wordsworth: A Great Poet William Wordsworth was born in Lake District of England in 1770. He is the most important poet of Romantic school of poetry. He developed a deep love for nature from his young age. He attended Cambridge University. He was fond of solitary walks in the countryside. He was a passionate supporter of the ideals of French Revolution. He later became disillusioned by its violence. He married Mary Hutchinson in 1802. His sister, Dorothy, became a vital part of his creative process. His friendship with Samuel Taylor Coleridge blossomed in the 1790s. They collaboratively wrote Lyrical Ballads in 1798. This composition challenged the poetic conventions of that day. They used ordinary language in it and focused on everyday experiences. Wordsworth's ‘I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud’ is one of the most recognizable poems in the English language. It features a dazzling display of daffodils. Another iconic poem of Wordsworth is Tintern Abbey . It is a fantas

The World Is Too Much With Us (Text) by William Wordsworth

The World Is Too Much With Us by William Wordsworth The world is too much with us; late and soon, Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers;— Little we see in Nature that is ours; We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon! This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon; The winds that will be howling at all hours, And are up-gathered now like sleeping flowers; For this, for everything, we are out of tune; It moves us not. Great God! I’d rather be A Pagan suckled in a creed outworn; So might I, standing on this pleasant lea, Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn; Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea; Or hear old Triton blow his wreath├Ęd horn.

MA IV SEM CCE QUESTIONS (JUNE- 2024)

MA IV SEM CCE JUNE- 2024 Note: Using separate answer book, attempt any ONE question from each paper. Assignment presentation is to be done in the classroom from 11/05/2024 to 15/05/2024. Paper- I (Critical Theory) Q1. Discuss Dhwani Theory. Q2. Discuss Derrida as a deconstructionist Paper- II (English Language) Q1. Write a detailed note on Morphology covering morpheme, morph, allomorph, phonological conditioning and morphological conditioning. Q2. What do you understand by ‘stress’ and ‘intonation’? Illustrate properly. Paper- III (Indian Writings of English) Q1. Discuss Kamala Das as a poet. Q2. Write the summary of The Shroud . Paper- IV (American Literature) Q1. Bring out Thoreau’s views on government. Q2. Discuss the theme of Death of a Salesman . ***************

MA II SEM CCE QUESTIONS (JUNE- 2024)

MA II SEM CCE JUNE- 2024 Note: Using separate answer book, attempt any ONE question from each paper. Assignment presentation is to be done in the classroom from 11/05/2024 to 15/05/2024. Paper- I (Poetry) Q1. Discuss Wordsworth as a poet of nature. Q2. Discuss Tennyson as a representative poet of Victorian Age. Paper- II (Drama) Q1. Discuss The Way of the World as a comedy of manners. Q2. Discuss Girish Karnad as a playwright. Paper- III (Fiction) Q1. Write a note on the role of fate and chance in the novels of Hardy with particular reference to Tess . Q2. Bring out the autobiographical elements in Sons and Lovers . Paper- IV (Prose) Q1. Show your acquaintance with the essays (prescribed for you) on Sir Roger in view of subject matter and treatment. Q2. Write about the inconsistencies of The Man in Black on the basis of given incidents. **************

Stephen Spender: An Introduction

  Stephen Spender: An Introduction Stephen Spender is a popular English poet, essayist and critic. He was born in London (England) on February 28, 1909. He attended University College, Oxford. He was deeply influenced by the literary and intellectual circles of his time. Throughout his life, Spender was actively involved in political and social causes. As a poet, Spender's works often explored themes of love, alienation, and social justice. His poetry was marked by its clarity, emotional depth, and empathy for the human condition. He received numerous appreciations during his lifetime. He left this material world on July 16, 1995.

Stephen Spender: An Introduction

  Stephen Spender: An Introduction Stephen Spender is a popular English poet, essayist and critic. He was born in London (England) on February 28, 1909. He attended University College, Oxford. He was deeply influenced by the literary and intellectual circles of his time. Throughout his life, Spender was actively involved in political and social causes. As a poet, Spender's works often explored themes of love, alienation, and social justice. His poetry was marked by its clarity, emotional depth, and empathy for the human condition. He received numerous appreciations during his lifetime. He left this material world on July 16, 1995.

The Express: A Summary

The Express: A Summary ‘The Express’ is a beautiful poem by Stephen Spender. It presents the beauty and majesty of an express train. The poem is quite interesting. It is because Spender finds beauty in a mechanical object like train. This poem deals with the power and majesty of a train journey. The poem begins with the departure of a train from the station. It departs with whistling. The poet says that the train glides like a queen without much fuss. It passes through the town, including humble houses and the gasworks, until it reaches the cemetery. When the train moves beyond the town it gains speed. It begins to sing with the whistle at curves and tunnels. The wheels of the train maintain an ecstatic rhythm. The speed of the train creates strange shapes of the steam and smoke in the sky. The journey takes the train to the edge of the world. It reaches the high and mountainous place at night. The illuminating train passes the hills with burning phosphorus. In short, this poe