The Axe: R.K. Narayan



The Axe: R.K. Narayan

I. Multiple Choice Questions:

Q.01. Who foretold that Velan would live in a big house?
(a) Father
(b) Villagers
(c) An astrologer
(d) A friend
Ans: (c) An astrologer
Q.02. At what age did Velan leave home?
(a) Sixteen
(b) Seventeen
(c) Eighteen
(d) Twenty
Ans: (c) Eighteen
Q.03. In Velan’s opinion, big mansion existed only in:
(a) Heaven
(b) Hell
(c) Swarg Loka
(d) Big cities
Ans: (c) Swarg Loka
Q.04. Which tree was most dear to Velan?
(a) Banyan
(b) Pipal
(c) Margosa
(d) Asoka
Ans: (c) Margosa
Q.05. R.K. Narayan was a:
(a) Short story writer
(b) Poet
(c) Historian
(d) Dramatist
Ans: (a) Short story writer
Q.06. Name the fictitious town of R.K. Narayan:
(a) Wessex
(b) Malgudi
(c) Hogwarts
(d) Xanadu
Ans: (b) Malgudi
Q.07. Kumar Baugh was called as:
(a) Palatial home
(b) Old home
(c) Lonely mansion
(d) Ghost house
Ans: (d) Ghost house
Q.08. Who says, ‘Don’t cut yet. I am still within hearing.’?
(a) Owner of the house
(b) Labourer
(c) Velan
(d) Villager
Ans: (c) Velan
Q.09. Velan shifted to the veranda of the bungalow because:
(a) He wanted to keep the bungalow for himself
(b) His hut started giving way
(c) He liked comforts and luxuries
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b) His hut started giving way
Q.10. For the new owners of the bungalow, the garden tenderly raised by Velan was:
(a) Very valuable
(b) Of no use
(c) Very beautiful
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b) Of no use
Q.11. The Axe has been written by:
(a) R.N. Tagore
(b) R.K. Narayan
(c) Mulk Raj Anand
(d) Raja Rao
Ans: (b) R.K. Narayan
Q.12. The Axe is written by:
(a) R.K. Narayan
(b) Amrit Lal Nagar
(c) Prabhakar Rao
(d) Rabindrnath Tagore
Ans: (a) R.K. Narayan
Q.13. The Axe is:
(a) An essay
(b) A poem
(c) A One act play
(d) A story
Ans: (d) A story
Q.14. What is the name of Velan's village?
(a) Rampur
(b) Lalgudi
(c) Koppal
(d) Malgudi
Ans: (c) Koppal
Q.15. Velan’s father worked on other people's land:
(a) True
(b) Partly true
(c) Partly false
(d) False
Ans: (a) True
Q.16. Which one is a famous work of R. K. Narayan:
(a) Gora
(b) Animal Farm
(c) The Guide
(d) Coolie
Ans: (c) The Guide
Q.17. After leaving the village where did Velan reach:
(a) Rampur
(b) Lalgudi
(c) Koppal
(d) Malgudi
Ans: (d) Malgudi
II. Short Answer Type Questions:
01. What was the prediction of the astrologer regarding Velan?
Ans: The prediction of the astrologer was that Velan would live in a three- storeyed house surrounded by many acres of garden.
02. Who foretold that Velan would live in a big house?
Ans: The astrologer foretold that Velan would live in a big house.
03. At what age did Velan leave home?
Ans: Velan left home at the age of eighteen.
04. Why did Velan leave home?
Ans: Velan left his home because one day his father publicly slapped his face for coming late with the midday-meal.
05. What was the weekly income of Velan’s father?
Ans: A few annas was the weekly income of Velan’s father.
06. What was the name of Velan's village?
Ans: Koppal was the name of Velan's village.
07. After leaving the village where did Velan reach?
Ans: After leaving the village Velan reached in Malgudi.
08. Where did Velan arrive after starving for a couple of days?
Ans: After starving for a couple of days Velan arrived in Malgudi.
09. Where did Velan arrive at last?
Ans: At last Velan arrived in Malgudi.
10. What work was assigned to Velan by the old man?
Ans: The work of laying out a garden was assigned to Velan by the old man.
11. Name some of the summer flowers that grew in the garden.
Ans: The summer flowers that grew in the garden were hibiscus, chrysanthemum, jasmine, roses and canna.
12. Who later became the sole occupant of Kumar Baugh?
Ans: Velan later became the sole occupant of Kumar Baugh.
13. What was the main business of Velan when he was employed as a gardener?
Ans: When Velan was employed as a gardener his main business was to tear up the unwanted plants by his hand.
14. What did Velan do with the unwanted plants?
Ans: Velan tore up the unwanted plants by his hand.
15. Which tree was most dear to Velan?
Ans: Margosa tree was most dear to Velan.
16. Why was Velan proud of his position?
Ans: Velan was proud of his position because he was the chief gardener.
17. What did Velan think about the beautiful mansion?
Ans: Velan thought that the beautiful mansion existed only in ‘Swarga Loka’.
18. What became the other name of Kumar Baugh?
Ans: The ‘Ghost House’ became the other name of Kumar Baugh.
19. Who says, ‘Don’t cut yet. I am still within hearing.’?
Ans: Velan says, ‘Don’t cut yet. I am still within hearing.’
20. What was the state of house after a few years?
Ans: After a few years the house became tattered and lost its brightness.
21. What did Velan ask the tree cutters in the end?
Ans: Velan asked the tree cutters not to cut the trees till he was far away from the house.
III. Long Answer Type Questions:
A. Write a short note on R.K. Narayan.
R.K. Narayan is one of the most reputed Indian English writers. Much of his work deals with the trials and troubles of 20th century Indian life. His novels and stories emanated from his own regional experience. Most of his writings centre round a fictitious town named Malgudi.
Narayan was born in Madras (now known as Chennai) on October 10, 1906 in a south Indian Brahmin family. After the completion of graduation he could not continue his studies. He became a clerk but he could not continue this job because it was monotonous for him. He resigned it and became a teacher. After a month or so he left the job of a teacher also and decided to devote himself to writing. It brought him great success as a novelist and a short story writer.
Narayan’s first novel, Swami and Friends, appeared in 1935 and was well received in England and elsewhere. This novel, an episodic narrative, recounts the adventures of a group of schoolboys. In his works Narayan typically portrays the peculiarities of human relationships and the ironies of Indian daily life. He brought out the humour and energy of ordinary life and displayed compassionate humanism. His style is graceful, marked by genial humour, elegance, and simplicity.
His important novels which drew the attention of the readers and earned awards and appreciation include Swami and Friends, The Bachelor of Arts, The Dark Room, The English Teacher, Mr. Sampath, The Financial Expert, Waiting for the Mahatma, The Guide, The Man-Eater of Malgudi, The Vendor of Sweets, The Painter of Signs, A Tiger for Malgudi, Talkative Man and The World of Nagaraj. He wrote a number of short stories collections include Malgudi Days, An Astrologer's Day and Other Stories, Lawley Road and Other Stories, A Horse and Two Goats, Under the Banyan Tree and Other Stories and The Grandmother's Tale and Selected Stories. His popular Non-fiction include Next Sunday, My Dateless Diary, My Days, Reluctant Guru, The Emerald Route, A Writer's Nightmare, A Story-Teller's World and The Writerly Life. He also published shortened modern prose versions of two Indian epics, The Ramayana and The Mahabharata.
Narayan won numerous awards during the course of his literary career. For The Guide he received the Sahitya Akademi Award (1958). When The Guide was made into a film Narayan got Filmfare Award (1967) for the best story. He received the Padma Bhushan (1964) and the Padma Bibhushan (2000) for his literary contribution. In 1980, he was awarded the AC Benson Medal by the Royal Society of Literature. He died on May 13, 2001 in Madras.
Hindi Translation:
आर.के. नारायण प्रतिष्ठित भारतीय अंग्रेजी लेखकों में से एक हैं। उनका अधिकांश कार्य 20वीं सदी के भारतीय जीवन के परीक्षणों और परेशानियों से संबंधित है। उनके उपन्यास और उनकी कहानियां उनके अपने क्षेत्रीय अनुभव से निकली हैं। उनका अधिकांश लेखन मालगुडी नामक एक काल्पनिक शहर के इर्द-गिर्द केंद्रित है।
नारायण का जन्म मद्रास (अब चेन्नई) में 10 अक्टूबर, 1906 को एक दक्षिण भारतीय ब्राह्मण परिवार में हुआ था। स्नातक की पढ़ाई पूरी करने के बाद वे अपनी पढ़ाई जारी नहीं रख सके। वे क्लर्क बन गए लेकिन वे इस नौकरी को जारी नहीं रख सके क्योंकि यह उनके लिए नीरस था। उन्होंने इस्तीफा दे दिया और शिक्षक बन गए। एकाध महीने के बाद उन्होंने शिक्षक की नौकरी भी छोड़ दी और खुद को लेखन के प्रति समर्पित करने का फैसला किया। इस समर्पण ने उन्हें उपन्यासकार और लघु कथाकार के रूप में बड़ी सफलता दिलाई।
नारायण का पहला उपन्यास, स्वामी एंड फ्रेंड्स 1935 में छपा और इंग्लैंड और अन्य जगहों पर इसे खूब सराहा गया। यह उपन्यास एक एपिसोडिक कथा स्कूली बच्चों के एक समूह के कारनामों को याद करता है। अपनी रचनाओं में नारायण आम तौर पर मानवीय रिश्तों की ख़ासियत और भारतीय दैनिक जीवन की विडंबनाओं को चित्रित करते हैं। उन्होंने सामान्य जीवन के हास्य और ऊर्जा को सामने लाया और करुणामय मानवतावाद का प्रदर्शन किया। उनकी शैली सुंदर है जो सामान्य हास्य, लालित्य और सरलता से चिह्नित है।
उनके महत्वपूर्ण उपन्यास जिन्होंने पाठकों का ध्यान आकर्षित किया और पुरस्कार और प्रशंसा अर्जित की उनमें Swami and Friends, The Bachelor of Arts, The Dark Room, The English Teacher, Mr. Sampath, The Financial Expert, Waiting for the Mahatma, The Guide, The Man-Eater of Malgudi, The Vendor of Sweets, The Painter of Signs, A Tiger for Malgudi, Talkative Man एवं The World of Nagaraj शामिल हैं। उन्होंने कई लघु कहानी संग्रह लिखे जिनमें Malgudi Days, An Astrologer's Day and Other Stories, Lawley Road and Other Stories, A Horse and Two Goats, Under the Banyan Tree and Other Stories and The Grandmother's Tale एवं Selected Stories शामिल हैं। उनके लोकप्रिय नॉन-फिक्शन में Next Sunday, My Dateless Diary, My Days, Reluctant Guru, The Emerald Route, A Writer's Nightmare, A Story-Teller's World एवं The Writerly Life शामिल हैं। उन्होंने दो भारतीय महाकाव्यों, रामायण और महाभारत, के संक्षिप्त आधुनिक गद्य संस्करण भी प्रकाशित किए।
नारायण ने अपने साहित्यिक जीवन के दौरान कई पुरस्कार जीते। द गाइड के लिए उन्हें साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार (1958) मिला। जब द गाइड पर फिल्म बनी तो नारायण को सर्वश्रेष्ठ कहानी के लिए फिल्मफेयर पुरस्कार (1967) मिला। उनके साहित्यिक योगदान के लिए उन्हें पद्म भूषण (1964) और पद्म विभूषण (2000) मिला। 1980 में, उन्हें रॉयल सोसाइटी ऑफ लिटरेचर द्वारा एसी बेन्सन मेडल से सम्मानित किया गया। 13 मई 2001 को मद्रास में उनका निधन हो गया।
B. Write the Summary of The Axe.
Narayan’s short stories have appeared in several collections and are based on the same material as his novels. His concern is mainly sociological. The Axe is a beautiful story about Velan who looks after an excellent garden. About him an astrologer has predicted that he would live in a three-story house. Velan belongs to the poorest family in his village. At the age of 18, his father slapped his face in public, and he left his house. After a few days of walking and begging, he gets a job as a gardener. The plot of land is large. But one day the property is sold to a builder who decides to cut off most of the trees and uproot the flower garden. The fall of the axe on his beloved tree, margosa, hurts him terribly and he decides to leave the place before the tree is cut.
Hindi Translation:
नारायण की लघु कथाएँ कई संग्रहों में छपी हैं और उनके उपन्यासों की सामग्री पर आधारित हैं। उनका सरोकार मुख्यतः समाजशास्त्रीय है। The Axe वेलन नामक एक युवक के बारे में एक सुंदर कहानी है जो एक उत्कृष्ट बगीचे की देखभाल करता है। उसके बारे में एक ज्योतिषी ने भविष्यवाणी की थी कि वह तीन मंजिला मकान में रहेगा। वेलन अपने गांव के सबसे गरीब परिवार से ताल्लुक रखता है। 18 साल की उम्र में उसके पिता सार्वजनिक रूप से उसके चेहरे पर थप्पड़ मार देते हैं और इसलिए वह अपना घर छोड़ देता है। कुछ दिन पैदल चलने और भीख मांगने के बाद उसे माली की नौकरी मिल जाती है। जमीन का प्लॉट बहुत बड़ा है। लेकिन एक दिन संपत्ति एक बिल्डर को बेच दी जाती है जो ज्यादातर पेड़ों को काटने और फूलों के बगीचे को उखाड़ने का फैसला करता है। अपने प्यारे पेड़ मार्गोसा पर कुल्हाड़ी के गिरने से उसे बहुत दुख होता है और वह पेड़ को काटने से पहले जगह छोड़ने का फैसला करता है।

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