Charles Lamb is a shining star in the sky
of English essay. He is called the prince among English essayists. His essays
are the finest in English prose. He brought to prose the finest qualities of
Romanticism. Lamb's readers appreciate him for his wisdom, for his humanity,
for his genial humour, for his profound pathos, for his sweet temperament and
for his style. BEGINNING: Born in a lower class family,
Lamb came in contact with Cole ridge. He started his career as a poet but could
not succeed. He acquired immortal recognition as an essayist. From 1820 to
1833, essay writing was his main occupation. He wrote under the pseudonym of
Elia. His first essay appeared in the London Magazine in 1820. The first volume
of his essays was published in 1823 as Essays Of Elia and the second as the
Last Essays Of Elia in 1833. Each essay of Lamb is a little wonder. Here we
find a fine combination of wit, fancy, anecdote and reflection. According to
Cazamian, he is above all an artist.
William Congreve is the best
and finest writer of the comedy of manners. We may say that he has invented a
new art of comedy. His ' The Way of the World' is considered as a work of art
and as a pure comedy of manners. It is the apotheosis of the comedy of manners.
It is a remarkable demonstration of Congreve's technical skill as a playwright.
Here we find an ironic commentary on the ways of society of the time.
The comedy of manners is a
genuine reflection of the temper of the upper classes of the nation. It deals
the external details of life, the fashion of the time, its manners, its speech
and its interest. The dramatists confine themselves to the drawing rooms, the
coffee houses, the clubs, the gambling centers, the streets and gardens of London. The characters
represent the people of fashion. The plots of comedy of manners are mainly love
intrigues. They are remarkable for neat, precise, witty, balanced and lucid
* INTRODUCTION: R. K. Narayan is a great writer of characters. He is praised for his art of characterization. He creats his characters with great consideration and significance. His characters are based on the psychological treatment. All his characters are real and life like. Thus his characters are immortal characters.
*RAJU AS THE CENTRAL FIGURE: Raju is the central figure in the novel 'The Guide'. The whole theme theme revolves round him. He dominates from the beginning to the end of this novel. He is the only source of all incidents and events in it. He appears before us in various forms before us as- a railway guide, Railway Raju, a hermit, a lover, a fraud and a criminal. Thus the novelist has named this novel after him. It is Raju who is the guide.
* RAJU AS A COMPLEX CHARACTER: Narayan's characters may be divided into three groups- simple characters, complex characters and minor characters. Raju belongs to the group of complex characters. It is ve…
The period from 1660 to 1700 is
named as the Restoration period. In 1660 King Charles II was brought to the
throne. The people of England
were suffering from tension due to strict rule of Cromwell. Thus the nation welcomed
the Restoration of Charles II. This Restoration brought about a revolutionary
change in social life and literature. The following characteristics distinguish
 THE RESTORATION:
During this period gravity, spiritual zeal, moral earnestness and decorum were
thrown to winds. The king was a thorough debauch. He had a number of
mistresses. He was surrounded by corrupt courtiers. Corruption was rampant in
all walks of life.
 Religious and Political
Quarrels: In the Restoration period we see the rise of two political
parties. They were the Whigs and the Tories. The Whigs were opposing and the
Tories were supporting the king. The rise of these parties gave a fresh
importance to men of literary ability. Both the parties supported them. The religious